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The Cameroon Nationality Code

1.1     Introduction 

Nationality is the state of belonging to a particular country.  According to Black’s Law Dictionary (2004) 8th Edition at page 1053 nationality is defined as:

 

“The relationship between a citizen of a nation … customarily involving allegiance by the citizen and protection by the state…this term is used synonymously with citizenship”

 

A citizen on the other hand is someone who by either birth or naturalization is a member of a political community, owing allegiance to the community and being entitled to enjoy all its civil rights and protection; a member of a civil state entitled to all the privileges.

Before independence, nationality in Cameroon was governed by separate colonial instruments in the two Cameroons.  Ordinance No. 59/066 of 28th November 1959 instituting the Cameroonian National Code of the French origin applied in East Cameroonian the British Nationality Act of 1949 of English origin applied in the West Cameroon.

Today the rules relating to Cameroon nationality law are found in two laws:

  1. Law No. 68-LF-3 of 11/6/68, “To set up the Cameroon Nationality Code”
  2. Decree No. 68-DF-478 of the 16/12/68, “To Establish Rules of Procedure Under the Nationality Code” which contains supplementary procedure

Cameroonian nationality is conveyed primarily by descent (jus sanguis), while nationality conveyed by birth (jus soli) is restricted to cases where the nationality of one or both parents is unknown.

There are three primary methods of attaining Cameroon nationality -birth, marriage, and naturalization. 

There are three main ways by which Cameroon nationality can be lost or forfeited by:

  1. a)acquisition or retention of a foreign nationality
  2. b)voluntary renunciation of Cameroonian nationality, and
  3. c)Government decree.

 

1.2 The Code and the Decree

The 1968 Cameroon Nationality Code is divided into seven chapters and 48 Articles. Chapter one deals with general issues, Chapter 2 focuses on the Nationality of origin that is nationality acquired by descent and by birth, Chapter 3 deals with how the nationality of Cameroon can be acquired, Chapter four focuses on the nationality can be lost or forfeited while Chapter five contains acts that can be done to cause a person to forfeit the Cameroonian nationality. Chapter 6 focuses on the disputes on nationality and Chapter 7 contains transitionary provisions.

Decree No. 1968 DF-478 of the 16/12/68, to establish rules of procedure under the Nationality Code is made up of three Chapters. Chapter one contains supplementary notes on the procedure for the acquisition of Cameroon Nationality by marriage, Chapter two deals with the conditions for the examination of applications for naturalization and restoration and lastly Chapter three focuses on the proof of Nationality before the Courts.

The Code provides in Section 30 (1) that:

“The acquisition of Cameroonian Nationality implies enjoyment from the same date thereof of all the rights attached to nationality.”

However, the Code does not make mention of the explicit rights and obligations of having the Cameroonian nationality. According to the Code Cameroonian citizenship is treated as nationality. It is therefore assumed that where the rights and obligations that go with being a citizen of the Republic of Cameroon found in the Constitutions such as the right to vote, life and a health environment to name a few are those rights and obligations that go with the Cameroonian Nationality.

The Code focuses on how the Cameroonian nationality is acquired, renounced, forfeited or lost.

According to the Code, the age of majority in Cameroon for the purpose of acquiring the Cameroonian nationality is 21 years. Worth noting is the fact that the Nationality Code and its decree are subject to international treaties and laws even if the provisions of such treaties and laws are contrary to the Nationality Code.[1]  For example Article 9 of theConvention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women (CEDAW)[2] provides that:

“States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men to acquire, change or retaintheir nationality. They shall ensure in particular that neither marriage to an alien nor change of nationality by the husband during marriage shall automatically change the nationality of the wife, render her stateless or force upon her the nationality of the husband”[3]

It states also that:

“States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children”[4]

  1. Cameroonian Nationality – The Code

Under the Code, Cameroonian nationality may be established as of origin or acquired. These can be by either of these ways:

 Descent, Birth, marriage, Common, Declaration, naturalization.

1.1 Nationality of Origin

The code distinguishes between the acquisition of the nationality of Cameroon by a legitimate child and an illegitimate child. The Cameroonian Nationality can attach as a Nationality of origin in the following situations:

1.1.1 Descent:

1.1.1.1        Legitimate Children

Where the child is a legitimate child, the child must have been born of parents who have the Cameroonian nationality. However, under the Code if just one of the parents of a legitimate child is a Cameroonian such a child born in Cameroon can obtain the Cameroonian nationality. A legitimate child may also acquire the Cameroonian Nationality can also be obtained by descent where one of the parents of the child is a Cameroonian and the other has no nationality.

 

1.1.1.2        Illegitimate Children

An illegitimate child may acquire Cameroonian nationality where both parents are Cameroonians. Where an illegitimate child has two parents and one is a Cameroonian and his affiliation has first been established to this Cameroonian parent,, he may adopt the Cameroonian nationality subject to the right to renounce the nationality 6months before his majority if he was born out of Cameroon and if according to the national law of the foreign parent he is able to renounce Cameroonian nationality and avail himself of the foreign nationality.

An illegitimate child may also acquire Cameroonian nationality where one of his parents is a Cameroonian, and the other is of no nationality if his affiliation to the Cameroonian parent is later established.

 

1.1.2 Birth –by birth of either the parents of the child or/and the child

Section 9 of the Nationality Code provides that

‘Cameroon nationality attaches to every child born in Cameroon of unknown parents’

It also states that a new-born child found in Cameroon will be presumed prima facie to have been born in Cameroon.

1.1.2.1 Legitimate Children

According to the Code, the Cameroonian nationality attaches to a legitimate child who is born of foreign parents,if both the child and his mother or father were born in Cameroon.

 

1.1.2.2 Illegitimate Children

 

In the case of an illegitimate child, who is born of parents who are foreigners, the child becomes a Cameroonian nationalif the child and the parent to whom his affiliation is first established were born in Cameroon.

In these cases the child will become a Cameroonian national subject to the right to renounce it within 6months before majority.

The Cameroonian nationality also extends automatically to any one born in Cameroon who is unable to claim any other nationality of origin.

 

1.1.3 Common

Section 14 of the Nationality Code provides that for the Cameroonian Nationality to be attached, affiliation must be established either by the Cameroonian law or by customFurthermore the Code provides that a child having Cameroonian nationality as a result of descent or birth shall be deemed to be a Cameroonian from birth even if the conditions required by law for the attachment of that nationality are not satisfied.

This can only happen provided:

  1. The attachment of Cameroonian nationality from birth does not affect the validity of acts- in- the-law of the person in question
  2. the attachment of Cameroonian nationality from birth does not affect the rights acquired by third parties on the basis of the child’s apparent nationality (Cameroonian)

1.2 Nationality by Acquisition

Additionally the Cameroonian nationality can be acquired through the following ways:

 

1.2.1 Marriage:

Marriage is one of the ways through which a person who is not born a Cameroonian can acquire the Cameroonian nationality. Under the Code, a foreign woman marrying a Cameroonian may acquire Cameroonian nationality at the moment of celebration of the marriage by express request. A foreign woman may also decline to acquire the Cameroonian nationality at the time of the celebration of the marriage.

Acquisition through marriage must be done through a declaration signed before the Judge of the magistrate court or diplomatic representative of Cameroon abroad or the President of the Civil Court at the Chief town (or president of the district court) of the subdivision in which the declarant resides. According to Decree No. 68 DF-478 of the 16th December 1968 to establish the rules of procedure under the Nationality code, such declaration must be done in three copies and signed before or at the time the marriage is being celebrated between the Cameroonian and the foreign woman or one  presumed to be foreign (could be the man).[5]

                The Decree provides that the original of the declaration shall be transmitted to the civil status registrar who is responsible for celebrating the marriage, while the second copy shall be handed to the declarant and the third copy shall be placed in a special register.[6] Before the celebration of the marriage the civil status registrar shall inform the foreigner who is marrying the Cameroonian of the conditions of acquiring the Cameroonian nationality and shall explain the conditions found in the Code relating to the acquisition of Cameroonian nationality through marriage.[7]

                Furthermore, according to the Decree, the civil status registrar shall forward a copy of the marriage registration together with the declaration made by the foreigner for registration at the Ministry of Justice for registration.[8] This shall be done within a month from the day of the celebration of the marriage. The declarant must satisfy the conditions found in the Code and its decree for the registration of the marriage to take place. Where these conditions are not fulfilled the Ministry of Justice has the right to refuse the registration of the marriage. Where the Ministry refuses to register the marriage, their decision and the reason for their decision shall be notified to the declarant who has the right to make a new declaration following the procedure provided for by the decree. According to the Decree, the declarant shall request an attestation having the force of a registration of the declaration; 6months after the celebration of the marriage where there is neither a decision to refuse registration nor a decree establish the opposition of the government. This attestation shall be transmitted by the Ministry of Justice.

Additionally, under the Decree, the legal department or any person may challenge the validity of the registered declaration at any time.

                The Code also provides that the acquisition of Cameroonian nationality by marriage may be prevented by government decree six months after the celebration of the marriage while this law is in force or 6months from the date of promulgation of this law for marriages that have already been celebrated.

 

1.2.2 Declaration

Another way in which the Cameroonian nationality can be acquired is by declaration. The Code allows persons who are not Cameroonian nationals to acquire the Cameroonian nationality by declaration however this is subject to the right by the government to prevent such acquisition by decree.

          Persons who are foreigners or of other nationalities may declare their desire to acquire the Cameroonian nationality provided that the person was born in Cameroon and has been resident in Cameroon for at least 5years before the declaration. This declaration must be done 6months before attaining majority. This means that a foreigner who is born in Cameroon but has another nationality may acquire the Cameroonian nationality by declaring 6months before majority that he wishes to acquire the Cameroonian nationality provided that on the date of his declaration he has been resident in Cameroon for at least 5years. The law is silent as to if the 5years period must be a continuous, uninterrupted 5 years.  The declaration shall be signed before the Judge or President of the Civil Court at the Chief town of the subdivision in which the declarant resides.

Again where a foreign child is adopted by a Cameroonian, the child may also declare within 6months before attaining majority that he claims Cameroonian nationality provided that he has been domicile in Cameroon.[9]

Additionally, where a parent has been restored the Cameroonian nationality followed the rules of restoration of the nationality under Section 28, the children of this person be they minor or majors who are already married may claim Cameroonian nationality by declaration (as provided by the Decree and Code) not withstanding where they were born and wherever they are resident.

It is worth noting that any declaration be it declaring the wish to acquire, decline or renounce or abandoning the right to renounce the Cameroonian nationality where ever this is provided by the law shall be signed before the Judge or the President of the Civil Court at the chief town of the subdivision in which the declarant resides. A declarant outside Cameroon shall sign the declaration or formal request before a diplomatic or consular representative of Cameroon. The Code makes the registration of the declaration mandatory without which such declarations shall be null and void.

 

1.2. 3       Naturalization

Cameroonian nationality can also be acquired by naturalization. The Code provides the conditions under which a person can acquire the nationality by naturalization while its Decree focuses on the procedure for the acquiring the nationality by naturalization. Section 24 of the Code provides that:

                “Cameroonian Nationality may be conferred by decree on a foreigner requesting it”

This implies that a foreigner may only acquire Cameroonian nationality by expressly requesting the nationality.  The application for the naturalization shall be addressed to the Minister of Justice, keeper of the seals.[10] The person applying must state expressly the reason why he wishes to acquire the Cameroonian nationality. The applicant must attach to the application the following documents:

  1. a)A curriculum Vitae
  2. b)A copy of his birth registration
  3. c)A copy of a marriage certificate or civil booklet where it applies
  4. d)A copy of birth certificates of his children who are minors and unmarried.
  5. e)Any other document which ascertains the full knowledge of the facts which may support his application.

On receipt of the application, the Minister of Justice shall cause a police inquiry to be conducted into the morals, conduct and loyalty of the applicant. He shall ascertain the degree of his assimilation to the Cameroonian community and the interest of this naturalization from a national point of view.

 

The Code provides strictly that the Cameroonian nationality can not be conferred on a person:

  1. a)Who has not attained the full age of 21years
  2. b)Who cannot show habitual residence in Cameroon for 5 consecutive years up to presentation of the application
  3. c)Whose main interests are not based in Cameroon at the time of the signature of the naturalization decree
  4. d)Who is not of good character and morals, or who has been convicted of an offence against ordinary law and has not been expunged by rehabilitation or amnesty
  5. e)Who is not of sound body and mind

The Minister has to transmit the bulletin of the police records to the applicant who shall be subjected to medical examination.[11] The medical examination shall ascertain his physical and mental capacity. The medical examination shall be carried out by a board whose composition and function shall be determined by joint order of the Minister of Justice and the Ministry in Charge of Public Health.

In making the decision to grant the nationality to a foreigner the Minister of Justice shall request the opinion of the Minister in Charge of Territorial Administration with regard to the application for naturalization.

The Minister has the discretion to accept or deny granting the application for naturalization. The applicant shall be notified of whatever decision that is taken by the Minister. The Decree provides that the applicant shall pay the sum of 30.000 FRS to the treasury before the signature of the decree of naturalization in case his application is granted.

It is worth nothing that the Cameroonian Code seemly/impliedly provides for a probationary period (it will seem) for the grant of Cameroonian nationality to a foreigner. It provides in Section 26 that ‘notwithstanding the foregoing section, no probationary period shall be required of a foreigner born in Cameroon or married to a Cameroon wife or a foreigner who has rendered exceptional services to Cameroon or whose naturalization would be highly advantageous to Cameroon.

Naturalization in Cameroon is finalized by the passing of a decree of naturalization of the applicant which shall be published in the Official Gazette.  The decree becomes effective from the date of their signing however such decrees shall not prejudice the validity of any acts of law carried out by the naturalized person or the rights acquired by third parties before the publication of the decree. This means that such decrees cannot act retrospectively.

The decree of naturalization may be revoked within a year from the date of discovery of a mistake or fraud on the part of the applicant or where the person did not satisfy the conditions required by law for naturalization

  1. Losing and Forfeiting the Cameroonian Nationality

Cameroonian nationality can be lost or forfeited. It may also be renounced by a person who is already a Cameroonian.

2.1 Loss

The Code lists 3 ways through which the Cameroonian nationality can be lost. These include:

  1. a)Willfully acquiring or keeping a foreign nationality
  2. b)Renunciation under the Code
  3. c)Retaining a post in a public service of an international or foreign body notwithstanding an injunction by the Cameroonian government to resign.[12]

According to the Code, loss of Cameroonian nationality frees the person who losses it of all allegiance to Cameroon.[13]

2.2 Forfeiture

The Code does not define forfeiture of Cameroonian nationality. It however states that:

‘A foreigner who has acquired Cameroonian nationality may forfeit it by decree’

This implies that forfeiture of the Cameroonian nationality of Cameroonian nationality under the Code is contemplated in the case of foreigners who have acquired Cameroonian nationality and later on carry out certain acts causing the government to rid them of the Nationality. The Code provides for two situations where the Cameroonian nationality may be forfeited namely:

  1. a)Where a foreigner is convicted of an act defined as a criminal Act or an offence against the internal or external security of the state.
  2. b)Where the foreigner commits an act which is harmful to the interest of the state.

For a foreigner to forfeit the Cameroonian Nationality, the act carried out must have taken place within 10years from the time he acquired the nationality. The forfeiture can only be pronounced within 10years from the commission of the act. (time barred after ten year the  act is not pronounced).

  1. Restoration

The Code and its supplementary decree do not define restoration of Cameroonian nationality. Section 28 of the Code provides that:

“Restoration of the Cameroon nationality shall be conferred by decree without condition of age or probation but subject to necessity of proof that the applicant was formerly a Cameroonian and showing residence in Cameroon at the moment of restoration

Section 29 also provides that

‘No person who has forfeited Cameroonian nationality may be restored to it without having later rendered exceptional service to Cameroon’

It can therefore be presumed that restoration of the Cameroonian nationality occurs when the nationality has either been lost or forfeited.

                According to the Decree, the application for restoration shall be addressed to the Minister of Justice, Keeper of the Seals.[14]  The Decree provides the list of documents that must accompany the application. These include:

  1. a)A copy of the enactment whereby the applicant was granted foreign nationality
  2. b)Any paper or document establishing that the was in possession of the status of Cameroonian nationality
  3. c)A certificate of residence issued by the Mayor or sub-prefect of his place of residence[15] (implying that the person must be resident in Cameroon)
  4. d)A curriculum vitae of the applicant
  5. e)A copy of his marriage registration or civil status booklet where applicable
  6. f)Copies of birth registration of the applicant’s minor unmarried children
  7. g)A medical certificate not more than three months old.

Restoration of Cameroonian Nationality in Cameroon is finalized by the passing of a decree of restoration of the applicant which shall be published in the Official Gazette.  The decree becomes effective from the date of their signing however such decrees shall not prejudice the validity of any acts of law carried out by the restored person or the rights acquired by third parties before the publication of the decree. This means that such decrees cannot act retrospectively.

The decree of restoration may be revoked within a year from the date of discovery of a mistake or fraud on the part of the applicant or where the person did not satisfy the conditions required by law for restoration.

 

  1. Disputes

The Code does not specify which court has the jurisdiction to entertain disputes relating to Cameroonian nationality. It is silent as to whether it is the High Court or the Court of First instance. It only states that: ‘the ordinary civil courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction of disputes on a question of nationality.’ However, Section 18 (1)b of Law No. 2006/015 of 29thDecember 2006 on Judicial Organization gives the High Court the jurisdiction in issues relating to affiliation and status of persons. It can therefore be assumed that any such disputes in relation to a person’s nationality should be brought before the High Court of the residence of that person.

                According to the Code, any action relating to such disputes shall be brought before the court of the domicile or residence of the person whose nationality is in dispute according to the rules of procedure in force.

Under the Code, a Cameroonian can raise the issue of nationality as a defense before foreign courts during any proceeding before such court. Where this happens the proceedings in such a court shall be stayed until the issue of nationality is determined.   The determination of nationality shall be before ordinary courts.  It is not clear if these ordinary civil courts are the courts in Cameroon or the court of the country where the proceedings are taking place. However, the Code provides that the Legal department shall be made a party and the representation of the state shall lie within its exclusive jurisdiction. The final judgment on the question of nationality before the civil courts is notwithstanding the ordinary law res judicata against the world.

The burden of proof of matters of nationality rest with the party who by an action or an incidental plea of defense claims that he possesses or does not possess Cameroonian Nationality. However, the burden of proof shall be transferred to a person disputing the nationality of a Cameroonian who possesses a certificate of Cameroonian nationality issued by the judges of civil courts sitting at the chief towns of subdivisions the burden of proof shall be transferred to such a person disputing such nationality.

The Code provides that a certificate of nationality shall be given to a person to prove that he has the Cameroonian nationality. This certificate shall be delivered by the Judges of civil courts sitting at the chief town of subdivisions exclusively. The Code is silent as to when a certificate of nationality shall be delivered as such it does not say whether such a certificate can only be given on request by the person. However the custom has been that such certificates are given by the Magistrate Courts on demand by a person who wishes to acquire a certificate of nationality.

Furthermore the Code provides that the certificate of nationality shall make reference to Chapters I and III of the Code.[16] The judge may refuse to deliver a certificate of nationality. Where he refuses the refusal shall be established by an attestation. The person who has been refused a certificate of nationality has the right to apply to the Minister of Justice who will decide whether the person should be issued a certificate of nationality.

 

  1. Proof Cameroonian nationality before the Courts

The proof of Cameroonian nationality shall be prima facie by a certificate of nationality.

According to the supplementary Decree, proof of a declaration to acquire nationality shall be established by the production of a registered copy of such declaration. Where this is absent it shall be established by an attestation delivered by the Minister of Justice either certifying that the declaration has been duly signed and registered or issued in lieu of registration.

Where the Code provides that the right to sign a declaration renouncing or declining Cameroonian nationality such as in the case of marriage, proof that such a declaration has not been signed may only be established by an attestation delivered by the Minister of Justice.

The Decree provides that proof of a decree of naturalization or restoration shall be established by the production of a copy of the official Gazette in which such a decree was published. In lieu of this, proof may only be established by an attestation from the Keeper of the Seals certifying the existence of such a decree.

Under the Decree, proof of a declaration renouncing Cameroonian nationality shall be established by the production of a registered copy of such declaration or failing this of an attestation from the Ministry of Justice certifying that the declaration of renunciation has been duly signed and registered.

In cases where Cameroonian Nationality is lost in circumstances not provided by the Code either by loss, or forfeiture or by renunciation during marriage, proof shall be established by ascertaining the veracity of the facts and acts which resulted in the loss of nationality.

                The Decree provides that the proof of foreign nationality shall be established by any means except in the cases of the loss or forfeiture of Cameroonian nationality. This provision is subject to the fact that the foreign nationality of the person possessing the status of a Cameroonian shall only be established by a demonstration that the person concerned satisfies one of the conditions imposed by law for possession of the status of a Cameroonian.

 

  1. Dual Nationality

A person is considered a dual national when he or she owes allegiance to more than one country at the same time.[17]A claim to allegiance may be based on of birth, marriage, parentage, or naturalization. A dual national may, while in the jurisdiction of either country that considers that person it’s national, be subject to all of its laws, including being conscripted for military service. There is no internationally agreed upon principle governing dual citizenship. Each country is free to determine how it will treat an individual who is a national of both that country and of another.

                The Cameroon nationality Code provides clearly that:

                “Cameroonian nationality is lost by any Cameroonian adult national who willfully acquires or keeps a foreign nationality”[18] It goes on the state that “…loss of Cameroon nationality frees from allegiance to Cameroon:”[19] It is therefore very clear that the Nationality Code does not provide for dual nationality and a Cameroonian can not be said to have two nationalities. According to the Code you are either a Cameroonian or you are not. Since the Code has not been amended this position is still good law presently.

 The Cameroon government has been very liberal towards Cameroonian soccer players or other persons who have acquired other nationalities and still retain the Cameroonian nationality; the position of the law is very clear on this issue. There is a global movement towards greater acceptance of dual nationality in countries around the world and even in Cameroon.

 

  1. Conclusion

The Cameroon nationality code and its enabling Decree is a very restrictive piece of legislation dealing with nationality. It omits several important several issues which touch on the Cameroonian nationality. It fails to give a clear definition to several important issues in the Code and falls short of a contemporary law on nationality.

What is striking about the Code is the manner in which the code makes a distinct difference between the acquisition of the Cameroonian nationality by an illegitimate child as oppose to legitimate children. This demonstrates the attention that Cameroon places on the status of illegitimate and legitimate children which characterizes many other laws in Cameroon.

Finally, the current Cameroon citizenship laws prohibition on holding dual nationality creates a diverse set of detrimental impact on its people, both in Cameroon and amongst the sizable emigrant population. The negative effects are rift, ranging from dilemmas at personal levels to microeconomic levels.



REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

PRIMARY SOURCES

Law No. 1968-LF-3 of 11th June 1968 to set up the Cameroon Nationality Code. Available at

 http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,LEGAL,,LEGISLATION,CMR,456d621e2,3ae6b4db1c,0.html

 

Decree No. 1968 DF-478 of the 16th December 1968, To Establish Rules of Procedure Under the Nationality Code. Available at

http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/type,LEGISLATION,,CMR,3ae6b4d84,0.html

 

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women (CEDAW). Available at

http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cedaw.htm

 

SECONDARY SOURCES

Articles

Dual Nationality. Federation for American immigration reform. Available at

http://www.fairus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=research_research18f9 

Eric Ngonji Njungwe and Gregory Thorne (June 2009) Cameroon Journal for Democracy and Human Rights (CJDHR) Vol. 3 No. 1 “Citizenship in Cameroon: Reassessing Cameroon’s restrictive nationality law and the need to recognize dual nationality.” Available athttp://www.picam.org/policy-papers/The-Need-to-Recognize-Dual-Citizenship-in-Cameroon.pdf

 

Progressive Initiative for Cameroon (PICAM) “Campaign for the recognition of dual nationality in Cameroon” Available at http://www.picam.org/campaigns/Campaign-for-Dual-Citizenship-in-Cameroon.htm


[1] Section 3 provides that the provisions regarding nationality contained in international treaties or agreements duly ratified and published shall have effect in Cameroon even though contrary to the provisions of Cameroon internal legislation.

[2] The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 18 December 1979. It entered into force as an international treaty on 3 September 1981 after the twentieth country had ratified it. By the tenth anniversary of the Convention in 1989, almost one hundred nations have agreed to be bound by its provisions. The Convention provides the basis for realizing equality between women and men through ensuring women’s equal access to, and equal opportunities in, political and public life — including the right to vote and to stand for election — as well as education, health and employment. States parties agree to take all appropriate measures, including legislation and temporary special measures, so that women can enjoy all their human rights and fundamental freedoms. Cameroon signed the Convention on the 6 Jun 1983 and ratified it on the 23/08/1994.

[3] Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against women (CEDAW), Article 9 (1).

[4] CEDAW, Article 9(2).

[5] Article 1 (1).

[6] Article 1 (2).

[7] Article 2 (1).

[8] Article 3 (1).

[9] This child is of a foreign nationality but may acquire Cameroonian nationality 6 months before attaining majority by declaration.

[10] Article 9 of Decree No. 1968 DF- 478 of the 16th December 1968 to establish the rules of Procedure under the Nationality Code.

[11] Ibid, Section 10 (2).

[12] Law No. 1968-LF-3 of 11th June 1968 to set up the Cameroon Nationality Code, Section 31(a), (b), (c).

[13] Ibid, Section 33.

[14] Ibid, Section 13 (1).

[15] This implies that the person must be resident in Cameroon while applying for restoration of Cameroonian nationality.

[16] Chapter I and III of the Code deal with the general position of the law on the Cameroonian nationality and the acquisition of Cameroonian nationality by marriage, declaration, naturalization, common and the restoration of the Cameroonian nationality.

[17] Dual Nationality. Federation for American immigration reform. Available at

http://www.fairus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=research_research18f9

[18] The Nationality Code, Section 31 (a)

[19] Ibid Section 33.

Source: Environmental & Law Thoughts |

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21 comments

  1. #1.Good educational material in need of updating. A Cameroonian woman marrying a foreign national (Russia) acquires foreign nationality that way. Does the reverse hold – can a Russian man become Cameroonian citizen by marrying a Cameroonian woman?

    News!!!!!!
    #2. Former TKC player, George Weah of Liberia has been voted into office as the next president of his country, Liberia. Bravo to the honorary citizen of Cameroon.

  2. Will money sent to Cameroon by a former citizen be allowed? Just being curious.

    • @Joshua
      Please stop calling yourself a former citizen; you are still current, n’est-ce pas?

  3. I smell war

  4. One doesnt need hollywood to keep laughing! LR is now officially demented! It is not a hard thing to acquire a cameroonian nationality . In fact, one could land in Douala today, do the two hours drive to Yaounde, then buy a few cases of beer for the commissioner of police, shake his hands with a concealed envelop of 200kcfa, and be equipped with a brand new passport two days later. The same goes for birth certificate, id card, or even a Phd qualification. So the write-up above is total bunkum!

  5. What is the essence of this article???

  6. Webmaster paste all my comments from the start lest you an accomplice to this rotting and selfish regime.

    • Épée Dipanda

      AG,
      He will not paste it. He keeps trying to play God here, I have suffered the same censorship for the past one month.
      Whatever they do, we shall not yield.
      As for me any rubbish document culled from La Republique is complete bunkum. It shall not apply.
      We in Anglophone Cameroon even before the white man came were not ruled by “decrees”. We had a collegiate polity, a parliamentary democracy of sorts which was respected and promoted through the indirect rule of the British.
      If you think you can sit in Yaoundé and tell me what I am or am not, NA you sabi.
      Our freedoms were granted us by God, we have come to cherish them that if necessary we are willing to die to preserve same.
      This is not a war that you can win. Save your innocent and hapless soldiers an unnecessary demise.

      • Welcome to the club of those waiting for “moderation” – 1 hour, 2h, 3,4,….
        .24, 48, 72 and then lost in cyberspace. You now understand that dossier chasing, the great industry of Y’de has reached export stage.

      • Chaiiiii, Épée!

        What is withholding your comment is a programme, not a human.
        The programme is too sensitive, that’s all.

        @AG, na today you know dis programme wey yi no di spare even ad-min yi sef-sef? Try for write A D M I N or B ALLA, but join’am. See wehti go happen.

        As for the arda mbut man, ah go prefer mek yi remain mbut man than for helep relieve yi from some of yi mbut…

        • Ok zz but my post too plenty. It’s an exposure of all of Biya’s government and their foreign passports culled from another page. We cannot keep hiding under the same hypocrisy in pretence of preserving a single nationality when the real fear is avoiding a la Nganang and securing the loot!

        • Épée Dipanda

          Zz,
          All code is man made (yes including AI)
          On this note let me reiterate the fact that our trouble with our francophone brothers also stems from the different views that we have of what a state is and what it should be.
          In Anglophone Cameroon, we have always believed that two (2) heads are better than one, preferring as we do by the very special grace of God, a parliamentary to a super presidential system which breeds inertia as it transforms itself into a gerontocracy.
          Our francophone brothers believe that they owe their existence to the state so at every crossroad they must lift a useless piece of paper to some policeman or soldier who can barely read and write his own name.
          This is another reason why we cannot be un Et indivisible

  7. Pompidou Mensah

    I thought all larepublique francafools were French citizens. Boboloman is a French citizen with birth rights in Switzerland. China and wherever stollen money can be hidden.

  8. The issue of Dual Nationality will be approved tomorrow. All Diasporans should not fear coming back. This was a singular event. Peaceful Cameroonians should go back home and help their communities. Development is not just a State matter but every citizen can do thier part an impact the much needed positive development we all want. We start real nation building tomorrow and progress without hate and fighting as one Cameroon family. Watch the speech tomorrow. Happy 2018 to all.

  9. Who really cares about being a cameroonians. You are born a cameroonian and you will die a cameroonian. No man and no woman can deprive you of that God given right. Fellow cameroonians 2018 brings very very dark clouds over the territory of cameroon. Let us all pray

  10. BRANDINO:_ please lets not only pray-lets put our heads together and help our country..
    Rwanda was in full chaos in 1994- 20 years later the country have overtaken cameroon..
    They did just spend time praying ..
    They thought and thought of their problems and looked for solutions..
    If you guys give me the chance to rule cameroon, I will limit the powers of the church drastically..
    These churches are also a curse to Africa and the black race…